All Summary From Romantic Poetry

Mofizur Rahman

All Summary  From (Romantic Poetry)
Honours 2nd Year
Romantic Poetry

John Keats
Ode on a Grecian Urn

This is a famous ode written by John Keats. In this ode he describes about an grecian urn. In the first stanza he asks some questions.First he describes about the shape of the Grecian Urn.The poet personifies the Grecian Urn and he also compress the Grecian Urn with a virgin lady. This lady is not a simple lady.She is a marriageable girl.He compares the Grecian Urn with a bride because a bride is more quite and silent lady then other women.He says that, a urn describes more meaning than a poet can express.Then the poet describes about the shape of the grecian urn.The poet asks "what story we can learn from your(urn's) designing? He also asks " Is its designing collected from Temple or dales of Arcady? Then the poet asks, "what is the tune of it?

In the second stanza the poet uses his vivid imagination.He says "which melodies or tune we here it is sweet but that we cannot hear is more sweeter".Then the poet describes about the another part of the grecian urn.Here he says about a piper who is piping his pipe.Though,we human being cannot hear his piping by our sensual ear but the poet doesn’t tell him to stop his piping.Then the poet describes about a couple.The couple is sitting beneath a tree. Though,they are sitting at the same place but they can not touch each other.The lover loves his beloved very deeply but he cannot kiss her.So the poet assures the bold lover that don't grieve for this matter because his beloved will never fade from his eyesight  and hee beauty will  never end.

In this stanza the poet says that human existence is temporal.Here,he says about the another side of the grecian urn.He says that trees those are captured into the urn and never shed.He also says it's spring will never end and the piper will never wearied and his songs will be newer and newer.Then he says that the bold lover and his beloved will not older.Because their beauty is permanent.But we human beings are a thing of destruction and our life is filled with sorrow as a result it becomes cloyed.And our brain becomes dull.

Into the stanza four the poet asks some questions.First he asks why those men are coming for the sacrifice to a mysterious priest?Where the men come from?Then he answers his questions. He answers that the men come from a little town near a sea shore of a river.He also says now those town will be emptied from where the men come.Now those streets will be silent forever because there is no men.All people are coming for worship to a mysterious priest And they cannot go home back.

In the last stanza the poet says that all are beautiful those are drew in the grecian urn.  Though all drawings are silence and it has no shape but all are beautiful.Then he says that when this generation will be older but the urn's beauty wil never old. Because "beauty is truth and truth beauty".We human beings know that.

কবি দেখেছেন একটা Grecian Urn যেখানে মানুষের অবয়ব খোদাই করা হয়েছে।তিনি বুঝতে চেষ্টা করেছেন এই চিত্রকর্মের পিছনে কি কারন থাকতে পারে। তিনি মনে করেছেন এই মানুষগুলো ঈশ্বরের অদ্ভুত সৃষ্টি। এখানে আছে এক প্রেমিক যুগলের প্রলয়কালীন দৃশ্য, আছে বাদকের হাতে বাঁশি এবং বাজিয়ে যাচ্ছেন অনবরত হৃদয়ের রঙ মাখানো সুর দিয়ে। 

এখান থেকে কবি বুঝতে পেরেছেন যে শিল্পের অবস্থান প্রকৃতির উপরে।না শোনা সুর যা বাশির থেকে প্রবাহিত হচ্ছে, আমাদের কল্পনাকে এক বিশাল পরিসরে দাড় করায়।যার ফলে জীবনের বাস্তব গানগুলো বিস্মৃত হয়ে ঐ সুরে হারিয়ে যায়।পাত্রের চিত্রকর্মে দেখা যায় যে প্রেমিক তার প্রেমিকাকে জড়িয়ে রাখতে চাইলেও প্রেমিকা কেবলি পালাতে থাকে কিন্তু কখনও পালিয়ে যেতে পারে না।প্রেমিক কখনও প্রেমিকাকে ছুঁতে পারে না আবার প্রেমিকাও তার সামনে থেকে কখনও দূরে যেতে পারে না। 

একই বিষয় দেখা যাচ্ছে চিত্রকর্মের বৃক্ষের সাথে। কবি বলেছেন এই বৃক্ষগুলি কখনও পত্রশূন্য হবে না,বৃক্ষের নীচে যে বংশীবাদক আছে সে কখনও তার বাজনা থামাবে না কিংবা ক্লান্ত হয়ে পড়বেনা।কবি আরো দেখিয়েছেন যুবক-যুবতির প্রেম কখনও তৃপ্তি পায় না।

Keats এমনভাবে এটা বর্ননা করেছেন যেন তিনি এটা বহুকাল ধনে দেখেছেন। যেহেতু এটি একটি গ্রীক শিল্প তাই এখানে পশুবলির একটা চিত্রও স্থান পেয়েছে। যা দেখে কবির মনে প্রশ্ন জেগেছে এটি কোন শহরের চিত্র, কারা এই মানুষজন, কোন দেবীর উদ্দেশ্য এই বলি।

অবশেষে কবি এই বলে কবিতাটি শেষ করেছেন যে এই পাত্রটি তখনে অক্ষত থাকবে যখন তিনি বা তার এই প্রজন্ম থাকবে না।পাত্রটি মানুষকে এই শিক্ষা দেয় যে "সত্যই সুন্দর, সুন্দরই সত্য"।আর এটাই হলো মানবজ্ঞানের উপলব্ধি। 

Ode to a Nightingale
In the first stanza the poet says that he is getting pain.He losses his sense due to drinking hemlock.Though the songs of nightingale is very sweet but the poet is not envious to hear it(songs of nightingale).The nightingle is singing his song from the beechen green tree.It is singing the song of summer with its sweet throat.

In the second stanza the poet desires to drink a cup of wine that has been collected and cooled for a long time deep under the earth.Its tests will be Flora that means the test of a flower.If the poet drinks the wine he will be a dancer and he will sing the song of festival.The poet desires a cup of genuine wine that's fountain is the Muses on Mount Helicon.By drinking these wine the poet wants to leave the earth and can escape into the dim forest and join with the nightingale.

In the third stanza the poet uses the term escapism. The poet wanted to escape from the world because this world is full of weariness and fret Here,every man is groaning at his or her bad time.Here,life span is very short.Youth becomes old and hairs become gray.Youth means new generation and gray hair signifies old generation.In this real world women cannot keep her beauty forever.They always want to be newer and newer.

Hindi stanza the poet wants to escape from this world and want to go to with the nightingale to its world.He won't go there by the chariot of Bacchus or his pards.The poet wants to go to by the wings of poetry.But his dull brain resists him to go to the nightingale.Then the poet says he has already gone to the word of nightingale.When he goes to the world nightingale it was almost night.The stars are beside the moon and lightening her(moon).But where the poet goes there is dark.There are only the sound of breezes those are coming from Heaven.The wind is coming through the verdurous glooms and winding mossy ways.

In this stanza the poet describes about the forest of Nightingale.There the poet could not see what things are around him but he could guess it by their smell.They were "white hawthorn" and "pastoral eglantine" etc.Bees were collecting honey from the mask rose.

In this stanza the poet was mixed with death. He invites Death in a soft sound to take him because he wants a painless death.The poet wants a happy death when the nightingale was singing his beautiful song. He thinks even after his death,the Nightingale would continue its song.If he will die he cannot hear the beautiful song of nightingale that gives him shock.Then he says if he will die among the beautiful surroundings but it also gives him pain because he would be deprived of this beautiful song after his death.

Here, the poet immortalises the nightingale. He says no man or generation can be destroy the bird.He says that the King and his renter also heard the melody of nightingale in the ancient days.It's song also heard by Ruth,who was a mythological character.She(Ruth) left her home for her beloved and where she accompanied her mother-in-law after her husband death.There she felt very sad and lonely so she wanted to come back her home.At last the poet says that the melody of nightingale also heard by the faeries.

Into this stanza the poet says that for a  while he had forgotten the real world which is full of "weariness fever and the fret". The Nightingale's song has inspired the poet and his imagination.The poet able to go to the world of Nightingale with it.But the word "forlorn" came back him into the real world.Then the poet adieu the melody of nightingale and he asked the Nightingale  "Was it a vision or a day-dream?".

Then the poet describes the fading scene of the nightingale.It's tune is heard over the fields or nearby. Then the illusion has broken.The poet comes back to the real world and regrets that imagination can not be the power to beguile him forever.

Ode on Melancholy

In the first stanza the poet advices the true seeker of melancholy what he should not do to achieve real melancholy.If anybody wants to taste true melancholy, he should not extract for drinking the juice of the poisonous plant or wolf's bane or the roots of which go deep down into the earth and hold it fast.The poet also says if anybody wants to feel true test of melancholy he should not need to bind his forehead with the poisonous plant.Again the poet says if anybody wants to fill the full force of true melancholy he should not make a rosary with the berries of yew tree.If anybody goes on counting his or her past grief and sorrows with this rosary he or she can never know what melancholy really is?
In other words if anybody gives his/her mind entirely to painful thoughts of death and sorrow,he/she cannot hope to get the true taste of melancholy.He/she should not make the soft feathered own, the symbol of death, and inspire of his/her deep sorrows which are a mystery to others.Simply he/she should not invite the owl to helping him/her  for practicing gloom and sorrow thoughts. Here the poet advices that don't seek those poisonous plants or  ominous birds or bettle to find the true taste melancholy.

in this stanza the the poet says stanza the the poet says about the sudden fall of melancholy.Melancholy is coming from above to refresh the withering sentiments in our heart.The sudden attacks of our sadness stimulates our vacant minds and gives grace of gravity to our thoughts. Then the poet asks what should we do when we find ourselves in a fit of melancholy?The poet himself answers this questions by making four suggestions.

Firstly when we are in a melancholy,we should feed our sorrows on the beauty of a rose that blooms in the morning.The beauty of the rose will fill our mind with the thought that beauty is transitory.So we shouldn't feel unhappy for our beautiful memories because beauty is transitory.

Secondly, we should enjoy the beauty of the rainbow colours which are are sometimes sometimes produced by the falling of the sunlight on the sea coast.

Thirdly we should live upon the rich beauty of the round shaped flowers of red and white colour.

Fourthly, here the poet gives a romantic suggestion.If we have a beloved and if she shows some anger on us which makes her look lovelier, we should hold her hand tightly.Even, if this activities makes her more angry but we should not worry about it because the beauty will pass away as soon as her anger subsides.

In this stanza the poet says that melancholy and beauty(beautiful woman) dwells in the same place.Beauty is short lived.The short lived of beauty makes a man melancholic.The feels sad because he can enjoy beauty for short time only.According to Keats melancholy is an essential part of beauty because melancholy is born from beauty.The relation between beauty and melancholy is clearly perceived by those who have a delicate sense of perception and who knows the keenness of beauty and joy.Infact nothing is beautiful without the mix of sadness.One who taste delight, he taste melancholy also.

কবিতার প্রথম স্তবকে কবি বলেছেন যদি আমরা বিষন্নতা উপভোগ করতে চাই তবে কী করা উচিত হবে না। হৃদয়কে দুঃখ ভারাক্রান্ত করা যাবে না।যা আমাদের সমস্ত কষ্ট মুছে দেয়। বিষন্নতার যাতনা বুঝতে হলে কোন বিষাক্ত কিছু পান করা যাবে না। বিষাক্ত গাছের নির্যাসে বেদনা ভুলে যাওয়াও যাবে না। অন্য কথায় আমাদের মনকে মৃত্যু ও দুঃখের ভাবনা থেকে মুক্ত করা যাবে না। রাতের ভীত বিহ্বল পেঁচার ডাকে মন আরোপ করা যাবে না। বিষন্নতার মধ্যে কোন রহস্য আরোপ করাও যাবে না। মোটকথা আমরা যদি বেদনার মধ্যে ডুবে যাই, মৃত্যু চিন্তার ভয়ে ভীত হই তবে আর বিষন্নতার স্বাদ পাওয়া যাবে না।

দ্বিতীয় স্তবকে কবি বিষন্নতাকে আমাদের সামনে হাজির করেছেন এক চমকপ্রদ অবস্থায়।তিনি বিষন্নতাকে তুলনা করেছেন বৃষ্টিস্নাত মেঘের সাথে।মেঘ থেকে ঝরে পড়া বৃষ্টি আমাদের মনকে সজীব করে। এটা প্রাকৃতিক সৌন্দর্য বিষয়।একইভাবে  বিষন্নতা আমাদের সুখকর ভাবনাগুলোকে না ভুলিয়ে বরং প্রাণ দান করে। কবির ভাষায় আমাদের মধ্যে চারটি বিষয় কাজ করে যখন আমরা বিষাদগ্রস্ত হইঃ- -
প্রথমত আমরা দুঃখের মধ্যে ডুবে যাই যেমন সকালের গোলাপ দেখে মুগ্ধ হবার মত মুগ্ধ হওয়া উচিত। 
দ্বিতীয়ত,সমুদ্র সৈকত ও আকাশে ঢেউ খেলানো রংধনুর সৌন্দর্যে মোহিত হওয়া উচিত।
তৃতীয়ত,পিওনি গাছের ফুলের সৌন্দর্য উপভোগ করা উচিত এবং
চতুর্থত,  প্রিয়তমার রাগান্বিত মুখের সৌন্দর্য উপভোগ করা উচিত।

শেষ স্তবকে এসে কবি বিষণ্নতা ধরন বর্ণনা করেছেন। তিনি মনোজাগতিক জন্মের উপর গুরুত্বারোপ করেছেন। সৌন্দর্য ও বিষণ্নতার দেবীদ্বয় একই মন্দিরে বাস করে। এক্ষেত্রে সৌন্দর্য খুবই স্বল্প স্থায়ী বিষয়। যা মানুষের মধ্যে বিষন্নতার জন্ম দেয়, ব্যক্তি বেদনা দ্বারা তাড়িত হয়।এভাবে তিনি দেখিয়েছেন যে আনন্দ ও বিষন্নতার দেবীও একই মন্দিরে বাস করে। মানুষ যখন আনন্দের মধ্যে থাকে তখনো তার মনে এই চিন্তা বিষন্নতার সৃষ্টি করে।
শেষ পর্যন্ত কবি আমাদের বলতে চেয়েছেন, বিষন্নতা ও আনন্দ বিপরীত হলেও তা একই সাথে মনের মধ্যে কাজ করে। একজন আনন্দ উপভোগের সাথে সাথেই বিষন্নতাকেও ধারন করে। এখানে দেখা যায় আনন্দ ও বেদনা একে অন্যের পরিপূরক রূপে অবস্থান করে। যে মানুষ আনন্দ উপভোগের সাথে বিষন্নতাকে ধারন করতে পারে সেই আনন্দ ও আসল বেদনার স্বাদ লাভ করে।
All Summary  From (Romantic Poetry)
Honours 2nd Year
Romantic Poetry

Lord Byron
Don Juan, Canto-1

"Don Juan" is an epic poem written by Romantic Poet Lord Byron in 1819.Byron satirizes the contemporary views and follies into this epic.Lord Byron was born in London,1788.When Byron wrote this epic he was 31 years old.So, his age can not supply a suitable hero and so, the poet choices a known character Don Juan.Don Juan was born in Seville,Spain.His father was Don Jose and his mother was Donna Inez.

Don Jose had no respect for knowledge and learning.But Donna Inez was a very pedantic, educated and knows Greek, Latin,French, English and Hebrew.So there was a harsh relationship between Don Jose and Donna Inez.She often try to prove her husband mad.Don Jose and Donna Inez led for some-time an unhappy short of life, they wishing their death but not divorced.They lived respectively as man and wife, their conduct was exceeding by well-bread and gave no outward sings of inward strife.Though, their friends had tried at reconciliation their relatives tried,who made the matter but worse.Even the lawyers did their utmost for divorce, but scarcely a fee was paid on either side when unlucky Don Jose died.

Now Don Juan was left with his widow-mother. His mother wanted to make him a paragon and worthy of the of the noblest pedigree.So, she learnt him arts of riding, fencing, gunnery and how to scale a fortes. He read classics and was puzzled by the filthy loves of gods and goddess.Actually his learning was to a great extent impractical and imaginary.He did not get any practical knowledge.He was to read sermons also.Half of his days  passed at church and the other between his tutors, confessor and his mothers.

At the age of six he was a charming child. At twelve he was a fine,quite boy. At the age of sixteen, he was handsome, slender and well-knit. Donna Julia was one of the friends of Donna Inez.She was a beautiful, intelligent and wife of Don Alfonso.There was a mismatch between them.Dona Julia was twenty-three years old whereas Don Jose was almost fifty.So the marriage was loveless.

It is said that Juan's Mother Donna Inez was once in love with Alfonso but their relationship was not allowed by the society. So, they were separated from each other.To continue a communication with Julia's family Donna Inez's one of the tricks so that she might keep a connection with Alfonso.

On the other hand Julia was very fond of Juan as a child and as a boy.Now ber love toward young Juan took a new dimension; the love changes in to a desire.But the silent proposal Juan could not understand.But to Julia it was clear.She wanted to resist herself but her love affection was so deeply to Juan that she could not avoid it.It was platonic.At a time there love affair turned into a sexual desire.At one November night Juan was discovered in the bed-room of Julia. Antonio, the maid servant of Julia watched over them.She warned that Alphonso is coming.But they were mad at that time for the sake of their sexual desire. So, they didn't hear the shouting of Antonio.When Alfonso entered the room and criticizes him for his suspicion and asks his friends to search the room.

Then Don Alfonso and his followers/friends investigate into the possible corners of the room without detecting out any lover.Then he apologises his visit to Juan but nothing more than sobs and hysterics comes from her.After Alfonso's leave, Juan emerges from his hidden place.Julia and Antonio advise Juan to go into a closet.No sooner had he entered  his new place then Alfonso entered the room again with new excuse and unfortunately he saw a pair of man's shoes.Hastily he goes to fetch his sword.But Juan was so unlucky that he meets Alfonso on the way while he wanted to flee.Juan knocks Alfonso down and manages an escape in exchange of his only garment.
Then Alfonso begs for divorce and Juan is  sent to a travel through various European countries for four years by his mother.Julia is put in a convent(সংশোধনাগার) from which she writes a letter to Juan in which she confesses her divine love for Juan.She describes, "I loved, I love you, for this love lost state,station, heaven, mankind's my own esteem, and yet regret what it hath cost.Again she writes "Man's love is of man's life a thing apart, " Tis woman's whole existence.

Byron concluded Canto-I with a mocking tone against his contemporaries.(Wordsworth,  Coleridge and Southey).

All Summary  From (Romantic Poetry)
Honours 2nd Year
Romantic Poetry
P.B. Shelley
To a Skylark
English Summary:-
"To a Skylark" is one of the most famous poem of Shelley. It was written in July 1820. It consists of 105 lines or 21 stanzas. 

In the opening stanza the poet describes about the skylark. At first the poet addresses the skylark as a "blithe spirit". The poet addressed the skylark not like a bird but a soul. It lives in the sky that means Heaven and its heart is filled with unprepared art. Then the poet says you(skylark) fly higher and higher like a thunderstorm and singing your(skylark's) beautiful song. You fly over the deep blue sky like an invisible soul and your race race is just begin from this moment. 

Into the next stanza, the poet says that the skylark is flying over the deep sky so we cannot see it but we can realise it by its ecstasic song. Then the poet compares skylark with the "silver sphare". The "silver sphere" is the star whose beams are as keen as arrows, when we try to see it in broad daylight it dazzles into our eyes. So, if we want to see the skylark, its dazzles also attract us. Its songs are spread over the whole earth and the sky. Then the poet compares the birds with moon. How moon reigns han beams on the earth the skylark's song also rains out its ecstasic songs from it. When the skylark is appear, it brings a pleasures tone. 

Into the next stanza, the poet says that a poet have a light of thought in his mind those he composes as verses. Then the poet compares the skylark with a high born maiden. Because a high born maiden is always chained. She soothes her love laden soul at a secret hour. 

Then the poet compares the skylark with a bee. A bee collects honey from the roses. 

The poet says that the melody of the skylark is more pleasures than any kind of songs. The poet asks to the skylark, "is it a spirit or a bird?" He also asks what is the stream of its happy songs. Then the poet assures us that we don't be worried to hear it because it gives us satiety. 

Then the poet gives a realistic idea. He says we feel sad for our past and present sweet memories and we also pine for what we have not. Then he says, 

"our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought." 

It is a paradoxical statement. Because beauty and melancholy are the two opposite state but they live in same temple. So, we be sad for our lost memories because memories are always sweet. 

At last, the poet requests the skylark to teach him half of its gladness so that he can scatter its sweetest melodies among the universe. 

English Summary:-
Shelley wrote this long poem as an elegy for Shelley’s close friend and fellow poet John Keats, who died in Rome of tuberculosis at the age of 26. The mood of the poem begins in dejection(হতাশা), but ends in optimism—hoping Keats’ spark of brilliance reverberates(প্রজ্বলিত করা) through the generations of future poets and inspires revolutionary change throughout Europe. Adonis is the stand-in for Keats, for he too died at a young age after being mauled(থেতলানো) by a boar. In Shelley’s version, the “beast” responsible for Keats’s death is the literary critic, specifically one from London’s Quarterly who gave a scathing review of Keats’ poem “Endymion” (Shelley was unaware of the true cause of Keats’s death). Urania (also known as “Venus” or “Aphrodite”), who is Adonis’ lover in the myth, is rewritten here as the young man’s mother (possibly because Keats had no lover at the time of his death). In a sense, Keats is not dead, for like other great poets, he lives within those who benefited from his life and poetry, and he is alive because he is “one with Nature.” He is even Christlike, a divinity among the best of poets. Even so, he died too soon. In death, he beacons the living to join him in eternity.

The Greek in the subtitle is: “Thou wert the morning star among the living, / ‘Ere thy fair light had fled; / Now, having died, thou art as Hesperus, giving / New splendor to the dead.” This is taken from the “Epigram on Aster,” often attributed to Plato, which Shelley had been translating at the time of John Keats’ death.

Shelley is mourning the death of his good friend, the young English poet John Keats. The persona(চেতনার বহিঃপ্রকাশ) has entered a state of dejection, calling everyone to mourn with him, and announcing that Keats should be remembered forever. To do so, Shelley assigns to Keats’ identity Adonis, a Greek god who was loved by Venus and died at a very young age, being torn apart by wild boars. 

The overarching form of the poem is a pastoral elegy, meaning that a shepherd of sorts is mourning the death of another. Literarily speaking, the function of pastoral poetry is reflexive in that it uses older traditions to make complex emotions seem simpler. The Greek legend of Adonis is a tale about a handsome youth who was equally admired by Aphrodite (Urania), Queen of Love, and by Persephone, Queen of Death. (Shelley makes Urania into Adonis’ mother in this elegy.) Unable to agree on which Goddess shall have him, Zeus decided he would spend half the year on Earth with Aphrodite (the spring and summer) and half the year in the underworld with Persephone (autumn and winter). During a summer hunt, Adonis pierced a boar with his spear, wounding but not killing the beast. In retaliation(প্রতিশোধ), the boar charged Adonis and stabbed him with his tusk(দাঁত), causing a lesion that would eventually kill the young and beautiful prince. It was said that every year the Greek women would mourn for Adonis when he died, then rejoice when he was resurrected (in the form of the windflower). Using this myth as the central theme in the elegy, Shelley is hoping, or suggesting, that Keats shall be as immortal as the young Adonis. Beyond the obvious parallel that both were taken at a young age, Shelley uses this poem to exhort readers to mourn him in his death, but hold onto him in memory and rejoice in his virtual resurrection by reading his words.

Shelley blames Keats’ death on literary criticism that was recently published (see lines 150-153; he was unaware that Keats was suffering from tuberculosis). He scorns the weakness and cowardice of the critic compared with the poet, echoing his famous essay providing “A Defense of Poetry.” The poet wonders why Adonis’ mother (“Urania”) was not able to do more to save her beloved son, and he summons all spirits, living and dead, to join him in his mourning. Shelley argues that Keats’ had great potential as a poet and is perhaps the “loveliest and the last” great spirit of the Romantic period (an argument that might be true).

Stanzas eight and nine continue with Shelley’s beckoning(নির্দেশ) of mourners. Stanza ten changes to dialogue: his mother, Urania, holds the corpse of her young poet son and realizes that some “dream has loosened from his brain.” That is, something about his mind is not dead although his body may be dead. The body is visited by a series of Greek Goddesses, who take three or four stanzas to prepare the corpse for the afterlife; Keats deserves it. 

Even nature is mourning the loss, where things like the ocean, winds, and echoes are stopping to pay their respects. As the seasons come and go, the persona is feeling no better. By stanza twenty, the persona finally perceives a separation between the corpse and the spirit, one going to fertilize new life in nature, the other persisting to inspire aesthetic beauty. This is when Urania awakens from her own dejected sleep and takes flight across the land, taunting death to “meet her” but realizing she is “chained to time” and cannot be with her beloved son, so she is again left feeling hopeless and dejected. She acknowledges her son’s “defenselessness” against the “herded wolves” of mankind but then compares him to Apollo, suggesting he will have more inspiration in death than he would have in life.

The persona then describes the death of Keats with scorn for those he thinks is responsible. Keats visits his mother as a ghost whom she does not recognize. The persona calls for Keats to be remembered for his work and not the age of his death, and Shelley takes an unusual religious tone as he places Keats as a soul in the heavens, looking down upon earth. Shelley contends that Keats, in death, is more “alive” than the common man will ever be, and he can now exist peacefully, safe from the evils of men and their criticisms.

In stanza forty-one, the poem takes a major shift. The narrator begins to rejoice, becoming aware that the young Adonis is alive (in spirit) and will live on forever. We see the Romantic notion that he is now “one with nature,” and just as other young poets who have died (Shelley lists them), their spirits all live on in the inspiration we draw from their work and short lives. Even so, Keats is a head above the rest. Completely turning on his original position, the speaker now calls upon anyone who mourns for Adonis as a “wretch,” arguing that his spirit is immortal, making him as permanent as the great city of Rome. Shelley ends the poem wondering about his own fate, when he will die, and if he will be mourned and remembered with such respect as he is giving Keats. 

Taken as a whole, then, “Adonais” expresses the many stages of grieving. John Keats died in Rome on February 23, 1821. Not long afterward, Shelley wrote the poem. Did he really go through the whole process described above? Such a recovery through poetry is somewhat surprising given its speed, but we do not have to see this poem as more than aspirational, a hope that this is somehow the way Keats has ended up and the way that those left behind will reconcile themselves to his loss. Instead of taking up these issues directly, Shelley chooses allusion and allegory going back to ancient myth in order to express his sorrow for the loss of his friend and to implore the rest of the world to never forget the work of the young bard. The use of ancient mythology suggests that Shelley sees Keats as a truly majestic figure, as the rest of the poem demonstrates.

While Urania is in mourning for the loss of her son, he visits her in spirit form (see lines 296-311). This makes Keats Christlike (with “ensanguined brow”) and makes Urania a kind of grieving Virgin Mary. After Urania does not recognize him, the speaker begins to realize that his beloved Adonis “is not dead” (line 343). This is not just a Christian metaphor of resurrection; it also employs a Platonic idea that all forms of the good emanate from the absolute good. As an example of the good and the beautiful, Keats partakes in the eternal and therefore never dies (see line 340). This is the realization that causes the speaker to rejoice and change his view from sadness to optimism, and the speaker now begins to immortalize Keats in many different forms. “He is made one with Nature,” and he “bursts” in beauty—from trees to beasts to men to Heaven.

Finally, the poet almost dares the reader, if he is still mourning, to join him in his newfound vision of immortality in mutated form (lines 415-23). He alludes to the city of Rome as “the grave, the city, and the wilderness,” where mourning is “dull time.” That is, if you do not quit this mourning, you risk finding yourself in your own tomb (lines 455-59).

Ultimately, Shelley concedes the passing of his friend because he accepts the idea that Keats’ “light” will continue to “kindle” the inspiration of the universe. So long as we never forget the power of Adonis’ spiritual resurrection, he will forever remain. The poet’s “breath,” in the “light” that shall guide Shelley throughout the rest of his life (Shelley died not long afterward, in 1822). 

বাংলা সামারী:-
অ্যাডোনাইস একটি যাজকীয় উপকথা যা শেলি তাঁর সমসাময়িক কবি জন কিটসের মৃত্যুতে লিখেছিলেন। মিল্টনের 'লাইসিডাস'-এর মতো এটি হ্যামার এবং ভার্জিলের শাস্ত্রীয় গ্রীক কাল থেকে কবিদের দ্বারা নিখুঁতভাবে এলিগির ধ্রুপদী রূপের ইংরেজি রূপান্তর। 'অ্যাডোনাইস' মূলত শাস্ত্রীয় প্যাটার্নে রচিত, যদিও শেলি কিছু উপাদানকে মানিয়ে নিয়েছে এবং যুক্ত করেছে। 

সেটিংটি নাটকীয়, এবং পাঠক মনে করেন যে কেবল দুঃখের দ্বারা আঘাত করা কেউ সবাইকে শোকের ডাকার জন্য সাহসীভাবে ছুটে চলেছে; তবে সময় ও স্থানে কর্ম এবং স্থানান্তরগুলি কবিতার সূক্ষ্ম সূত্র থেকে অনুমান করা উচিত। এই যাজকীয় এলেগিটি ক্লাসিকাল যাজকীয় এলিগির আদলে রচিত। 

 এটি একটি অনুরোধ এবং শোকের সুর দিয়ে শুরু হয়; তারপরে এটি মৃত ব্যক্তির জন্য শোকার্ত রাখাল/কবিদের শোকে প্রকৃতির অংশগ্রহণের বর্ণনা দেয়; সেখানে শোকের মিছিল চলছে (তাদের মধ্যে শেলি নিজে এবং লর্ড বায়রন রয়েছেন); তারপরে বক্তৃতা সবচেয়ে খারাপ সাহিত্য সমালোচকদের আক্রমণ করেন যারা ক্রমবর্ধমান শিল্পী কিটসের আত্ম-সম্মান এবং সম্মানের ক্ষতি করেছিলেন, উপসংহার হিসাবে সান্ত্বনায় যাওয়ার আগে। তবে শেলি তার নিজস্ব কোডার আবিষ্কার করেছেন: কবিতার শেষে তিনি মৃত্যুর স্বতন্ত্র ধারণা এবং মৃত্যুর নিজের পূর্বসূরি প্রকাশ করেছেন। 

কবিতাটি শেষ হওয়ার সাথে সাথে মেজাজ ক্রমশ দুঃখ থেকে স্বাচ্ছন্দ্যে সরে যায়। শেলি কিটসকে চিরন্তন আত্মার সাথে এক করে তোলে; রোমে প্রোটেস্ট্যান্ট কবরস্থান দেখার পরে শেলি তাঁর প্লেটোর আদর্শের মতবাদ সম্পর্কিত দার্শনিক ধারণাটি উপস্থাপন করেছেন: অনেক রঙের চশমার গম্বুজের মতো জীবন। শেলি তাঁর নব্য-প্লাটোনিক আদর্শের প্রসঙ্গে দাবি করেছেন যে, বর্বর সমালোচক তাঁর খুনির দোষহীন ও লজ্জাজনক জীবনের চেয়ে গৌরবময় কিটস মৃত্যু তার চেয়েও ভাল। তিনি আরও অনুভব করেন যে তাকে জন কীটসের চেতনা দিয়ে অমর পৃথিবীতে ডাকা হয়েছিল: বাস্তবে কীট মৃত্যুর প্রায় দুই বছর পরে শেলি মারা গিয়েছিলেন! 

‘অ্যাডোনাইস’ নামটি দুটি উৎস থেকে এসেছে (অ্যাডোনিস এবং অ্যাডোনাই) একজন শাস্ত্রীয় এবং অন্য খ্রিস্টান। গ্রীক পৌরাণিক কাহিনিতে অ্যাডোনিস হলেন একটি সুন্দর নশ্বর যুবক, যিনি দুটি দেবী অ্যাফ্রোডাইট এবং প্রোসারপাইন দ্বারা প্রিয় beloved শিকার চলাকালীন বুনো শুকরের দ্বারা নিহত হওয়ার পরে, তাকে জেরুস দেবতা আফ্রোডাইটের জন্য পুনরুদ্ধার করেছিলেন, তবে যেহেতু তাকে প্রসর্পাইন এত দিন ধরে রেখেছিলেন, তাই জিউস আদেশ দিয়েছিলেন যে অ্যাডোনিসকে শীতের মাসগুলি হেডেসের পার্সফোনের সাথে এবং গ্রীষ্মের মাসে অ্যাফ্রোডাইটের সাথে কাটাতে হবে। তাঁর মৃত্যু ও পুনরুত্থানের গল্পটি মৃত্যু ও পুনর্জন্মের প্রাকৃতিক চক্রের প্রতীকী। অন্যদিকে, ‘অ্যাডোনাই নামটি ব্যুৎপত্তিগতভাবে‘ অ্যাড-অন ’এর সাথে সম্পর্কিত, সেমিটিক শব্দ যার অর্থ“ প্রভু ”যা ওল্ড টেস্টামেন্টে ঘটে। শেলির কবিতায় শব্দটি কিটসকে আক্ষরিক অর্থে উপস্থাপিত করার সময়ও অমর কবির প্রাকৃতিক পুনর্জন্মের পরামর্শ দেয়, পাশাপাশি কবির divineশ্বরিক সৃজনশীল (প্রভুর) শক্তিও দেয়। এছাড়াও, উরিয়ানা শেলির ধারণায় রয়েছে, দুজনেই অ্যাফ্রোডাইট, অ্যাডোনিস পুরাণের মা-মা এবং মিল্টন আধ্যাত্মিক প্রভাবকে মিল্টনকে "স্বর্গীয় যাদুঘর" হিসাবে আখ্যায়িত করেছিলেন। 

প্রকৃতপক্ষে, এটি আশ্চর্যজনক মনে হতে পারে যে শেলির যাজকদের যেমন প্রয়োজন তেমন কৃত্রিম এবং সীমাবদ্ধ বিন্যাসে কিটসের মৃত্যুর জন্য শোকার্ত বেছে নেওয়া উচিত। যদি তাঁর দুঃখের অনুভূতি সত্যই ছিল, কেউ জিজ্ঞাসা করতে পারেন, কেন এগুলি তাদের স্পষ্টভাবে বা কমপক্ষে স্বল্প পরিভাষায় প্রকাশ করা হয়নি। যাজকরা কবিকে অনুশীলন করতে দেয়, তবুও ইভেন্টটিকে কাব্যিক করার বিকল্প রয়েছে। সেই দৃষ্টিকোণ থেকে শেলি, যিনি বিস্তৃত কাব্য শৈলী ও ভাব প্রকাশের পক্ষে যথেষ্ট দক্ষ ছিলেন, তিনি সর্বপ্রথম তাঁর সহকর্মীকে কাব্যিক বক্তৃতার অনন্য কাঠামোয় উচ্চমানের দ্বারা সম্মানিত করেছিলেন। 

শেলি সমস্ত ঐতিহ্যবাহী প্রথাগত যাজকীয় সীমাবদ্ধতাগুলি মেনে চলেন - এবং আরও- তার মহিমা তৈরিতে। Traditionতিহ্যের সাথে তাল মিলিয়ে তিনি চরিত্রগুলি তাদের প্রকৃত নাম দ্বারা চিহ্নিত করেন না, তবে তাদের রাখালদের নাম বা সামাজিক পরিবেশের চেয়ে প্রাকৃতিক বৈশিষ্ট্যের দ্বারা চিহ্নিত করেন। যেহেতু tradition গ্রীক, তাই তিনি শাস্ত্রীয় কল্পকাহিনী এবং চিত্রগুলিতে ফিরে আসেন। কিটসের প্রচেষ্টাগুলি, যেমন পূর্বে উল্লিখিত রয়েছে, তাঁর ঝাঁক। শোকার্সের মিছিলটি যথাযথভাবে ফুল এবং বসন্তের অন্যান্য অঙ্গগুলির সাথে সজ্জিত হয়; এমনকি তাঁর দুঃখের গভীরতায়ও কবি কখনও পাঠককে মনে করিয়ে দিতে ব্যর্থ হন না যে এটি আসলে বছরের বসন্তকাল। 

এলিগিয়াক যাজকরা কবিতার শেষে অভিজ্ঞতাটিকে ইতিবাচক রূপ দিতে বাধ্য হয়েছে, কারণ কোনও কবি শারীরিক মৃত্যুর অনস্বীকার্য বাস্তবতাকে অস্বীকার করতে পারবেন না, যাজকের খুব আদর্শিকতার জন্য সমস্ত মানুষের আশাগুলির সত্য লোকস হিসাবে একটি স্বতন্ত্র বাস্তবতা কল্পনা করা প্রয়োজন এবং আকাঙ্খার। তার উত্সাহিত উচ্ছ্বাসের মধ্যে আলো অন্ধকারের উপরে জয় লাভ করবে, যে সত্য ঘৃণা ও তীব্রতার দ্বারা তাদের দ্বারা চালিত সহিংসতা সহ্য করবে, পুনরুত্থান যা দমকে দূরে সরিয়ে নিতে পারে, অ্যাডোনাইস একজন ব্যক্তির মৃত্যুর জন্য শোক প্রকাশ করার খুব প্রাণবন্ত জীবনকে পুনরুদ্ধার করে।

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