Hand Notes For Restoration and 18th Century Poetry And Drama

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Hand Notes For Restoration & 18th Century Poetry And Drama-3rd Year

Hand Notes For Restoration & 18th Century Poetry And Drama-3rd Year

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  • Department of English.
  • Honours 3rd Year.
  • Restoration & 18th Century Poetry And Drama.
  • Hand Notes for Good Result.
  • All Important Broad Questions Answer.
  • Part - C.
  • Provide by Mofizur Rahman.

Consider Absalom and Achitophel as a satire.

Or, Give an estimate of Dryden as a satirist in the context of Absalom and Achitophel.

Or, How successful is Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel as a political satire.

Or, Evaluate the quality of satire in Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel.

Ans. Satire is a form of literature, the purpose of which is to reform human weaknesses or vices through laughter or disgust. Absalom and Achitophel is a landmark political satire by John Dryden. The poem originated in the political situation of England and English people, Parliament, and several political personalities are satirised in it.

Dryden also satirizes Parliament. Exclusion Bill recommended the exclusion of James II from the line of succession and wanted the Duke of Monmouth as the successor to King Charles. The king opposed the bill and dissolved Parliament. He was then requested to call Parliament to approve of the choice of Parliament for the nomination of the next king. He compares it to the deceit practice of Biblical Jacob who sought the blessing of his father, Isaac, by pretending to be his brother Esau. Outwardly, they pretended to be pious and prayed for the safety of the king but inwardly, they tried to take away his royal power from him.

Dryden in the poem satirizes the politicians. Achitophel here, stands for the first Earl of Shaftesbury (1621-83). He was the leader of the anti-royalist group. He had decided either to rule a state or to ruin the country. He planned to defy the authority of the King. He needed a leader of the revolt against the King. He felt that the Duke of Monmouth, would be a suitable leader of the revolt. This is a bit of sharp satire on politicians.

Dryden uses satiric method of irony and sarcasm to portray the character of Zimri who stands for the second Duke of Buckingham (1628-87). He is a humorous symbol of inconstant man. He epitomizes all mankind because sometimes he was a chemist, sometimes a musician, sometimes a statesman and sometimes a clown. He had a great interest in women, poetry, painting and drinking. He rewarded all except the real merit of a man.

Shimei is portrayed with great satiric skill. He stands for Slingsby Bethel (1617-97), a sheriff of London and Middlesex. In his youth he was devoted to God but he hated the kingship. He violated the sanctity of Sabbath if he could make money by doing so. Hel accumulated wealth by cheating people and covered it up by his devotion to God.

In Absalom and Achitophel, Dryden satirizes the English people for their whims and fickleness. They were not satisfied with the King. They always complained about the King. They were not satisfied with the kings. After the death of Oliver Cromwell, they made his foolish son Richard the Lord Protector. But soon they were dissatisfied with him and dethroned him. They called Charles who was living in exile and made him the King of England. But soon they were motivated to build the Republic destroying monarchy. Thus, the English people are whimsical and fickle-minded.

Show how Dryden blends the heroic and the satiric in Absalom and Achitophel with illustrations form the text.

Or, How effectively does Dryden combine the heroic and the satiric in Absalom and Achitophel?

Or, Show how Dryden blends the heroic and the satiric in Absalom and Achitophel.

Or, In Absalom and Achitophel satire has been raised to epic dignity. Comment.

Ans. An epic or heroic poem is a long narrative poem on a serious subject written in a grand style centred on a noble action of a noble character. Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel is a political satire in the basis of epic tradition.

In the poem Dryden satirizes the English people, Parliament and politicians of England but the poem is heroic in matters of action and theme. The poem is heroic in scale and its theme is not trivial. Its structure is complex and dialogue is grand. The poem is written for the purpose of exciting public feeling against Shaftesbury, leader of the Whig party, who was trying to exclude the Catholic Duke of York from the succession line to the throne and wanted to put the Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of Charles II, on the throne.

Absalom and Achitophel uses satire to artfully comment on a political situation involving England's Charles II. The use of satire as a literary convention allowed Dryden to indirectly praise and criticize members of the royal family without consequence.

Absalom and Achitophel makes a remarkable use of Biblical allegory to raise the political satire to a higher level. In the poem King David stands for Charles II, Absalom for the Duke of Monmouth and Achitophel for the first Earl of Shaftesbury. Here Dryden's allegory attains a splendid effect.

The style of Absalom and Achitophel is essentially heroic. In Dryden's heroic style, "the plot, the characters, the wit, the passions, the descriptions, are all exalted above the level of common converse. Dryden here uses Biblical story in an epic manner. The verse of the poem is dignified in style. His unusual arrangement of words is marked by heroic style:

Him staggering so when Hell's dire agent found,
While fainting virtue scare maintained her ground,

He pours fresh forces in, and thus replies.
Absalom and Achitophel is heroic in its characterization. We have epic style in the descriptions of the King's supporters. The same epic mode is found in the portrayal of Absalom (Duke of Monmouth) and Achitophel (Shaftesbury). Shaftesbury is compared to Satan who tempted Adam and Eve to eat the fruit of forbidden tree. Absalom is his victim because without his temptation Absalom did not revolt against his father.

Absalom and Achitophel exhibits a splendid blend of the heroic with the witty. In his portrait of Achitophel, Dryden refers to Achitophel's son as "that unfeathered, two legged thing, born a shapeless lump, like anarchy." The son was conceived by his wife when his mind "did huddled notions try." Dryden employs his wit in his portrayal of Shimei who was devoted to God but he hated the kingship. He violated the sanctity of Sabbath if he could make money by doing so.

Dryden's wit is also seen in his ironical attack on Corah but the best example of his wit can be found in his portrait of Zimri who is a humorous symbol of inconstant man. He epitomizes all mankind because sometimes he was a chemist, sometimes a musician, sometimes a statesman and sometimes a clown. He had a great interest in women, poetry, painting and drinking.

Thus, Absalom and Achitophel is political satire cast in a heroic mould. It can be called a miniature epic. An epic is patriotic and didactic. Absalom and Achitophel is also patriotic and didactic.

In Absalom and Achitophel, Dryden is both typical and universal. Discuss.

Or, How does Absalom and Achitophel transcend the typical interest?

Ans. Absalom and Achitophel is a political satire the supreme excellence of which lies in its sketches of character. In this poem several historical personages are presented. They are a combination of particular and universal features. Each character is a particular individual but embodies certain universal. features that can be found in people of all lands and at all times.

Achitophel stands for the Earl of Shaftesbury. He is the leader of the anti-royalist group. He was very ambitious. He had an unlimited. lust for power. He wanted to rule the country or ruin it. He instigates the Duke of Monmouth to rebel against his father. He tries to use the Duke of Monmouth as his tool. He may be compared to Satan. However, Shaftesbury is an individual character in the sense that he is very honest and successful as a judge. But his hypocrisy, ambition, lack of integrity, false friendship etc are universal features which are found in the politicians of all ages.

Zimri stands for the second Duke of Buckingham (1628-87). He is a poet, wit and politician. He is a humorous symbol of inconstant. man. He epitomizes all mankind because sometimes he was a chemist, sometimes a musician, sometimes a statesman and sometimes a clown. He had a great interest in women, poetry, painting and drinking.

He was in the habit of recklessly wasting money. He was reduced to poverty because he was looted by his flatterers. His habit of wasting money is his individual characteristic but he possesses some universal qualities such as instability, superficial interest, foolishness, wavering in mind, a contradictory nature, and above all a futility of purpose.

Shimei stands for Slingsby Bethel (1617-97), a sheriff of London and Middlesex. In his youth he was devoted to God but he hated the kingship. He was a miser. He violated the sanctity of Sabbath if he could make money by doing so. He accumulated wealth by cheating people and covered it up by his devotion to God. He fed his servants with spiritual food (knowledge) and refused to give them meat which would give them strength or revolt against hin possesses some universal qualities such as cunning, monetary greed, miserliness and blasphemy.

Thus, Shimei Corah stands for Títus Oates, who invented the Popish Plot and led the persecution of Catholics. He had sunken eyes, a harsh voice, a long chin and a ruddy complexion. He was a great liar and false witness. His physical characteristics are his own but his falseness, his scheming and fraudulent nature, and his hypocrisy universal features which are commonly found.

Absalom stands for the Duke of Monmouth. He is an illegitimate son of Charles II with handsome appearance. He is an ambitious. man and had a great desire for winning fame. Shaftesbury used him as his tool. He tempted him to become the successor to the crown against his father's wishes. Because of Shaftesbury's flattery, the Duke of Monmouth revolts against his father. Thus, the character of the Duke of Monmouth is not very uncommon. His rashness, ambition and hypocrisy are found in everywhere in large number.

To conclude we can say that the characters in Absalom and Achitophel are better than the original. In the poem what Dryden tells us about them is true. They are the universal figures who can be found in all times and all lands.

Discuss the significance of the proviso scene in The Way of the World.

Or, Comment on the significance of the proviso scene in The Way of the World.

Or, How does the bargaining scene settle the complex issue of marriage in The Way of the World?

Ans. The proviso scene (contract/bargaining scene) is one of the most remarkable aspects of Congreve's The Way of the World. Here Mirabell and Millamant put some conditions before each other. This scene serves double purposes:
1. It provides rich comic entertainment, and
2. It serves as a basis on two persons in love can lead a happy conjugal life after their marriage.

Millamant is well aware of the adverse circumstances which a woman faces after her marriage. She knows that men always exploit their wives after their marriage. So, she imposes some conditions before her lover Mirabell in order to get proper conduct on the part of Mirabell after their marriage. According to her first condition, she wants equal amount of love and affection on the part of her would-be husband.

She says that when she becomes a wife, she will not surrender her dear liberty; she will not bid farewell to her "faithful solitude", "darling contemplation", "morning thought", "agreeable waking," etc and she will lie in her b4ed in the morning as long as she pleases. Again she says that she would not like to be addressed as "wife", "spouse", "my dear", "joy", "jewel", "love", "sweetheart" etc.

She would not like to be kissed before folks, and to go to Hyde Park with him. Asked by Mirabell, she further informs that she wants to receive letters from her well-wishers without the interference of Mirabell, to wear what she pleases, to dine when she pleases, to be the sole empress at her tea-table and even Mirabell cannot enter her room without knocking at the door. If Mirabell agrees to these conditions, she will "by degrees dwindle into a wife."

Then comes the turn of Mirabell. He also lays down some conditions before Millamant, which reveal the affectations of women in that society. Mirabell wants that after their marriage, Millamant. should follow some guidelines. She should not be in company of any women who indulges in scandalous activities. He expects her to stay away from the theatre. Mirabell does not like activities of the fashionable society. So he says that she should not wear the oil skinned masks which covers the actual appearance of a woman.

Women of those days were accustomed to wear tight and skin-fit dresses. But Mirabell strongly opposes Millamant's wearing such kind of clothes during her pregnancy because it might have harmful consequences for the unborn child. So he informs her that after her marriage, he will not allow her to wear such tight dresses.

The proviso scene is significant event in the play because it presents a true picture of Restoration society. In this scene Congreve exposes the follies and vices prevalent in a married life. Though the proviso scene appears comic in its presentation, actually it is a serious document which contains a lot of valuable suggestions for a happy conjugal life.

Comment on the complexity of the character of Lady Wishfort.

Or, sketch the character of Lady Wishfort.

Ans. Lady Wishfort is a wonderful creation of Congreve and she occupies a very significant position in The Way of the World. She is a full-length portrait of the old coquette of the Restoration society. Her chief function in the play is to provide entertainment, fun and laughter though she comes out as a pathetic figure at the end of the drama. She contributes to Congreve's satirical portrayal of contemporary manners of the aristocratic ladies.

Her vanity is made clear from the beginning of the play. She misinterprets Mirabell's flattery, which he describes in the first act, and tends to grow a kind of infatuation for him. In the third act, the picture of Lady Wishfort at her toilette ridicules the woman who does not accept the fact of her age gracefully.
Her indecorous interest in men is a part of her character and important for the action. It is the reason she can misinterpret Mirabell and, for the same reason, Mirabell can hope that Waitwell's wooing may be successful. The complexity of her character is that she lets other people to exploit her but, at the same time, she guards against it very carefully.

Congreve has probed this character further. Her vanity and man chasing both have a common source - she lives in a world of fantasy. She looks into mirrors constantly but does not see what everyone else sées. In her mind, she can still be a girl of sixteen or a beautiful young woman. She is, therefore, especially susceptible to flattery, for there is no touch of good sense to help her see through it.

Because of her susceptibility to flattery, her friends are always ill-chosen. Everyone she trusts betrays her to a greater or lesser degree: apparently her closest friend is Mrs. Marwood who plots against her; her daughter and ward are both prepared to go along with a plot that would trick her in a most humiliating way; her maid, Foible, on whom she depends, plays a major part in the plot. In her dilemma in the last act, she is bewildered and helpless.

We find her in her various moods: her spirited encounters with her maids, her indulgence and lenient attitude towards her nephew, her spiritless reception of Sir Rowland, her romantic friendship with Mrs. Marwood, her selfish affection for her daughter, and her painful surrender to Mirabell who has aroused her passion by his pretended courtship.

Lady Wishfort is a stock figure, that of an ageing lady chasing the opposite sex indiscriminately although men do not find her attractive. By the end of the play, she has gained a certain measure of goodwill from audience. She is a complex creation, the butt of the author's satire and actors' ridicule.

The Way of the World, Congreve exposes the folly Without the slightest corrective intention. Argue in favour of or against this statement.

Ans. Indeed, readers derive a sense that the playwright seems to be bent upon disclosing the follies of the characters representative of social norms and notions of the time. It seems to be all about idiocy - a society preoccupied with self-gain in a treacherous way. There is hardly anything to admire. And, as a comedy of manners, Congreve portrays the characters and their follies without making any correction. He presents them as they are and hurls harsh satire on their follies.

In The Way of the World, the phrase "the way of the world" has been recurrently used, for example, Fainall first uses it in Act 2: "the ways of wedlock and this world". And at the end Mirabell's mocking approach: "'tis the way of the world, Sir; of the widows of the world". This repetitive motif makes it clear that the play is concerned with the problems of the social system personified through the characters. Marwood and Fainall are those who eavesdrop, blackmail and play intrigues.

They use each other for their own sake. Millamant feels comfortable when she is surrounded with men, though, she is aware of the fact that the men are simply foolish. Lady Wishfort's sole desire is to hold on youth and beauty. At a certain stage of the play, she becomes extremely fascinated with Mirabell to gratify her sexual desire. Again, Millamant does not forget to bargain with Mirabell before accepting her proposal in the proviso scene. So, the motive of marriage among the characters is mainly for money or material benefit not love.

The intrigue, in the plot, is a significant theme, and has been used as a tool to satirize the degradation and follies in the social and individual behaviours. This intrigue is best expressed via the hide and-seek between the Fainalls. Both the husband and the wife lack love, faith and adjustment. They hate each other; get involved in extra-marital affair, yet, both pretend to extremely love each other in front of others. Fainall bears his marital life since his sole concern is his wife's money. And, this is the money which makes Marwood play love-game with Fainall. Mirabell, too, plays with innocent Wishfort to get her niece. This is how all are planning and scheming against one another for their own sake.

So, all the characters do nothing but enjoying chocolate, playing cards and conspiring against each other for their own gratification. None of them can really be seen as unfailingly 'good'. In the epilogue, we find these ironic lines quite a satiric evidence of this: "Tho they're on no pretence for judgment fit/ But that they have been damned for want of wit." Also, as said above, this is the way of that world; Congreve does not hesitate to portray them in their own tint, without any corrective measure.

Identify the mock-heroic elements in the poem The Rape of the Lock.

Or, What is a mock-heroic poem? Examine The Rape of the Lock as a mock-heroic poem.

Or, Consider The Rape of the Lock as a mock-heroic poem.

Ans. The very title of the poem brings in our mind a sense of mockery and laughter when the cutting of beautiful lock of Belinda is compared to a 'rape' which actually bears a very severe and a brutal meaning. The poem is called a mock-heroic poem which deals with a very trifling issue having no serious purpose or goal. But an original epic must have a serious theme and a grave purpose.

Apart from being a mock epic it has a very witty and light beginning which we find in the invocation, in its similes and the epic matter with its machinery, its battles, its journey on water and down to the underworld. Through the white curtain the sun entered into Belinda's bedroom and fearfully cast a ray on the bed of Belinda. Belinda was a late riser and also goes to bed late at night.

When she was waking from her sleep, the lap dogs were giving a shake to their body to rouse themselves from lethargy. Then Belinda rang her bell thrice to call her maid and getting no answer she knocks the ground. with her slipper, and press the her repeater which gives a silvery or sweet sound. She then fell asleep again, pressing her pillow which was stuffed with the softest feathers. The Sylph whose duty was to protect her from all harm has extended the period of her soothing sleep.

It was that Sylph who had induced her silent bed the morning dream which now floated into her brain. He took the form of a young man brightly dressed caused a blush on her cheeks even during her sleep. That young gallant in her dream seemed to place his persuasive lips close to her ears and speak in a low tone.

We find mockery in Belinda's flashing lightening from her eyes and screaming like the Homeric heroes; but against the bulk of Achilles, she is a mere slip of a girl and a mere fashionable lady. Again we find an alter built of 'twelve vast French romances of love which is made to serve the purpose of winning the heart of a beautiful nymph like Belinda. That was not built to praise the Greek goddess.

The battle between enraged men and women was happened on a velvet plain only for the lost lock of hair. The sylphs, nymphs, gnomes and salamanders of The Rape of the Lock make every incident with great importance. In the battle of the sexes, they take sides like the Greek gods and They take utmost care as the Greek gods take care of their favorites.

With the mocking activities of some aerial creatures the poem gains a higher status in the field of comic literature. Belinda's 'Sacred Rites' on her dressing table is also treated as a mockery of religious feeling. Her keeping a Bible beside her cosmetics shows the frivolous women's tendency to make a vain show of their religious habit.

Comment on Umbriel's journey to the Cave of Spleen.

Or, What is the significance of Umbriel's journey to the Cave of Spleen in Alexander Pope's Rape of the Lock?

Or, Comment on Canto-IV of Alexander Pope's Rape of the Lock.

Ans. Alexander Pope's Rape of the Lock is commonly acknow ledged as one of the finest parody of the epic poems in English. One of the striking allusions to the conventions of the epic occurs in the poem when Umbriel descends to the Cave of Spleen in Canto IV. The episode bears significance for it not only mimics the epic tradition but also psychological state of Belinda following the 'rape'.

After the 'rape' of her lock, Belinda suffers from "anxious cares" and "secret passions" equal to the emotions of all who have ever known "rage, resentment and despair." After that dreadful event the disappointed sylphs withdraws. Ariel also flees weeping. An earthy gnome called Umbriel flies down to the "Cave of Spleen".

In his descent Umbriel passes through Belinda's bedroom, where she lies prostrate with discomfiture and the headache. She is attended by two handmaidens," Ill-nature and Affectation. He passes safely through this melancholy chamber, holding a sprig of "spleenwort" before him as a charm. He addresses the "Goddess of Spleen," and returns with a bag of "sighs, sobs, and passions" and a vial of sorrow, grief, and tears. He unleashes the first bag on Belinda, fueling her ire and despair.

Thalestris urges Belinda to avenge herself. She then goes to Sir Plume, to ask him to demand that the Baron return the hair. Sir Plume makes a weak and slang-filled speech, to which the Baron disdainfully refuses to acquiesce. At this, Umbriel releases the contents of the remaining vial, throwing Belinda into a fit of sorrow and self-pity. With "beauteous grief she bemoans her fate, regrets not having heeded the dream-warning, and laments the lonely, pitiful state of her remaining curl.

Umbriel's descent to the Cave of Spleen in Canto IV has two-fold significance. Firstly, it mimics the epic formula, being reminiscent of the journeys of both Odysseus, in Homer's 'Odyssey', and Aeneas in Virgil's 'Aeneid', which serves to trivialize the causes of Belinda's anxious cares. The episode describes the psychological state of Belinda's mind in a mock-epic vein. The journey is used by the poet as a way of exploring the sources and nature of Belinda's feelings.

The presence of Ill-nature and Affectation as handmaidens in Belinda's bed-chamber serves to indicate that her grief is less than pure. Their presence indicates that she has put on a mask of sorrow, and that her display of temper has hidden motives. Pope also shows us in a mock version of the heroic underworld, the human casualties of the beau-monde'.

There is a similarity between Belinda's world and the "Cave of Spleen". The cave is, in a sense, allegorical representation of Belinda's world. The presence of commodity within society is an important point. The "Cave of Spleen" is also interpreted as an allegory of the relative emotions in Belinda's head.
In The Rape of the Lock Pope exposes the follies of the aristocracy and their obsession with trivial social affairs. Umbriel's journey to the "Cave of Spleen" is significant within the context of the poem as it, in mock-heroic vein, satirizes Pope's contemporary society. The introduction of the episode in the poem intensifies its ock-epic nature.

Comment on Pope's treatment of aristocratic way of life in 18th century London in The Rape of the Lock.

Or, What light does Pope throw on the contemporary fashionable society?

Or, Show how is The Rape of the Lock, satire on contemporary society?

Or, Consider The Rape of the Lock as a social satire.

Ans. In The Rape of the Lock Pope recalls himself as the spokesman of his age. It is primarily a satire on the ridiculous attitude of people, which includes their laziness, vanities, false pride, follies, frivolitics and material aspirations. Pope's principal attempt in this satirical poetry is to purify the oddities and irregularities in the manner of the aristocratic of the day.

At the very outset of the poem, Pope calls our attention to the idleness and late-rising aristocratic ladies of the time who possesses keen interest in, domestic pets. The vanities of those ladies, such as their love of gilded chariots and ombre are also made known to us in the very beginning of the poem. Their ambition to get married to peers and dukes or other high officials is also ridiculed in the opening canto of the poem.

Then, we can find that the coquetry, the art, the artifice and the false pride and vanities of the aristocratic ladies are the chief concern of Pope in this poem. These ladies in the very early of their life learn how to blush in-a coquettish manner. Their heart shifts from one beloved to another according to their need:

With varying vanities, from every part, They shift the moving toyshop of their heart. They would sink on their rich quilts and pretend sickness so those young gallants should come to inquiry after their health and should see the costly gowns on their body:

On the rich, quilt silks with becoming woe,
Wrapt in a gown, for sickness, and for show.

Besides, they feel interested in the love-letters of their so-called beloved. When Belinda at last gets up from bed after having been licked by Shock, her eyes first opens on a love-letter.

Toilet is the chief concern of these aristocratic ladies. On of the most celebrated passages in The Rape of the Lock, is the one in which Belinds is described at her dressing table. We are told that before commencing her toilet operations, Belinda offers a prayer to "the cosmetic power". She gathers all the fashionable items from all over the world-Indian glowing gems, Arabian perfumes, files of pins, puffs, powders, patches etc.

Moreover, the moral bankruptcy of these ladies is further ridiculed when Thalestris points out the need for sacrificing everything, even chastity, for the seek of reputation. They consider that virtue might be lost, but not a good name: Honour forbid at whose unrivalled shrine Ease, pleasure, virtue, all our sex resign. declares that she would not have left so offended if the Baron had"

The same attitude of mind is expressed in the lines in which Belinda stolen any other hair from her but spared that particular lock. Oh, hadst thou, cruel! Been content to seize.

Thus, we may conclude that Pope attempts to expose the follies and absurdities of the royal English society in a witty manner. Here, he has employed all the recognized weapons of satire in an effective way. So, The Rape of the Lock is rightly considered the true genius of his satirical work.

Critically comment on Pope's attitude to the character of Belinda in The Rape of the Lock.

Or, Despite her weakness, Belinda is an infinitely lovable girl? Do you agree?

Or, Pope has an ambivalent attitude towards Belinda. Discuss. Sketch the character of Belinda

Ans. Alexander Pope has designed The Rape of the Lock as the representative works depicting Belinda as the model of the common fashionable ladies of his time. Although it seems to have no hero, his Belinda is the chief attraction of it and thus becomes the heroine. She is the only leading character, a mere fashionable butterfly, like any figuring in the unheroic pages of The Spectators. Yet hér screams and the flashes of lightening from her eyes are compared to those of an epic hero.

There are everal aspects of the personality, of Belinda as portrayed by Pope in The Rape of the Lock. At the very outset of the poem, we see her as an idle and late-rising aristocratic lady who possesses keen interest in domestic pets. Her idleness is established when we see her sleeping unto twelve, Besides, they felt interested in the love-letters of their so-called beloved. When Belinda at last got up from bed after having been licked by Shock, her eyes first opened on a love-letter.

Therefore she is full of vanities and loves gilded chariots and Ombre. At the same time, she is ambitious to get married to peers and dukes or to other high officials. This is why she frequently visits The Hampton Court in the river Thames. She passes an aristocratic life and mixes with the Barons recklessly:

Then gay ideas crowd the vacant brain,
While peers, and dukes, and all their sweeping train,
And garters, stars, and coronets appear,
And in soft sounds, "Your Grace' salutes their ear.

Moreover, Belinda is the embodiment of the coquetry, the art, the artifice and the false pride. However, Ariel acquaints us with her flirtations nature when exhorting his fellow spirits to remain vigilant. Ariel discovers surprisingly that in spite of all her pretence, she is amorously inclined towards a gallant.

Then, we get the picture of her shallow outlook about religious faiths and beliefs. She is a worshiper of beauty who prays to the goddess of beauty and offers all the items of cosmetics before her. She is a typical presentation of women's excessive attention to self decoration and embellishment. She gathers all the fashionable items from all over the world-Indian glowing gems, Arabian perfumes, files of pins, puffs, powders, patches etc.

In a satirical passage, Pope describes Belinda in a confucius mood before her dressing table: Here files of pains extend their shining rows, Puffs, powders, patches, bibles, billet-doux. Thus, assigned by her maid Betty, Belinda seeks to improve her Bodily charms. However, she does not show any respect for the holly book, Bible.

Therefore, the moral bankruptcy of these ladies is further ridiculed when Thalestris points out the need for sacrificing everything, even chastity, for reputation. They consider that virtue might be lost, but not a good name: Honour forbid at whose unrivalled shrine Ease, pleasure, virtue, all our sex resign.

Finally, we may come to a conclusion that The Rape of the Lock is a mockery of the manners of the tea-cup times of Queen Anne. Here, Pope seeks to throw light upon the fickle minded fashionable ladies of the 18th century England depicting Belinda as the representative character.

Evaluate She Stoops to Conquer as a comedy of intrigue.

Or She Stoops to Conquer ends with everyone discovering the tricks which have been played on them."-

Or What are these tricks and how do they contribute to the total comic impression of the drama?

Ans. She Stoops to Conquer is a splendid comedy of intrigue. The comedy of intrigue is a play in which plot manipulation is more important than characterization. In such a comedy there are plots, designs, contrivances, even conspiracies of one character or a group of characters against the others. So in the comedy of intrigues, the characters may be divided into two groups-the intriguers and the intrigued, or the deceivers and the deceived.

She Stoops to Conquer consists of intrigues or tricks of Tony against Marlow and Hastings and his mother, of Miss Hardcastle against Marlow, and of Mrs Hardcastle against Tony. These tricks are the principal sources of wit and humour in the play.

Tony's intrigue against Marlow and Hastings sets the action of the drama in motion. Marlow and Hastings come to the Three Pigeons losing their way to Mr Hardcastle's house. At that time Tony misdirects them in order to take revenge on his stepfather who always finds faults with him and calls him young dog and considers him to a worthless boy.

Besides, they describe Tony as an awkward, spoiled child. So Tony misdirects them to the Hardcastle home as to an inn and Mr Hardcastle as to an innkeeper. These tricks contribute to a lot to the comic impression of the play. Because of these tricks, Marlow mistakes his future father-in-law for an innkeeper and orders him for punch. They talk at cross-purposes which amuse us most.

Miss Hardcastle's tricks upon Marlow constitute the central episode of the play and bring about the happy ending of the main plot. In their first interview, Marlow does not look at her face. So she decides to play the barmaid in order to win his heart. When she appears before him in plain dress, Marlow mistakes her for a bar maid, looks at her face and tries to plant a kiss on her lips.

Thus she captivates his heart by stooping to the level of a barmaid. She plays another trick upon him. When he asks her if she is a barmaid, she tells him that she is a poor relation of the family. Her tricks upon him are charged with irony. They contribute to the comic impression of the play. We are at the height of comedy when we see him go down on his knees praying for the hand of the very girl who is eager to marry him.

The trick of Tony and Miss Neville upon Mrs Hardcastle is another amusing scene of the play. Tony is the son of Mrs Hardcastle by her first husband. Miss Neville is an orphan who lives with her aunt, Mrs Hardcastle. Mrs Hardcastle wants his son to marry Miss Neville in order to retain her fortune in the family.

But Tony does not like Miss Neville because his heart is fixed on a country girl, Bet Bouncer. Miss Neville, on the other hand, is in love with Hastings. But they pretend to make love to each other with a view to satisfying Mrs Hardcastle.

Tony again intrigues against his mother in order to help Hastings and Miss Neville to be united in wedlock. He steals the jewels of Miss Neville from his mother's almirah and gives them to Hastings to assist the elopement of Hastings and Miss Neville. But the jewels go back to Mrs Hardcastle for the idiocy of Marlow and Hastings and the plan of elopement is revealed to her.

When she sends Miss Neville to aunt Pedigree's house as a punishment, Tony harasses his mother by taking her round and round the house in a stage coach through the muddy paths, sloughs etc, and places her in the horse pond. She comes out of the pond being drenched. She is so frightened that when she mistakes her own husband for a highwayman and kneels down at his feet to spare her son's life. This scene is highly comical.

Hastings and Miss Neville intrigue against Marlow by not telling him that the house to which they have come is Mr Hardcastle's and the owner of the house is not an inn-keeper. Tony is himself intrigued by his mother and step-father who keep him under the illusion that he has not yet come of age, though he attained maturity three months earlier. When this trick is exposed, Tony declares that Miss Neville is free to marry anybody she likes. This declaration entitles her to marry Hastings with her fortune. As a result the play ends happily and it makes for the totality of comic impression in the play.

Thus, She Stoops to Conquer is a great comedy of intrigues and counter-intrigues, which are charged with irony and which enhance's lot the entertainment value of the comedy.

Comment on the use of wit and humour in She Stoops to Conquer.

Or Comment on Goldsmith's treatment of wit and humour in She Stoops to Conquer.

Ans. She Stoops to Conquer is remarkable for its humour. It is "a pure comedy", a laughing comedy which aims at laughter, more laughter and nothing but laughter. It has an immense variety of humour-humour of situation, humour of character and ironical humour.

She Stoops to Conquer abounds with situations which send the audience roaring with laughter. There are a number of such situations. For example, there is the scene in which Mr Hardcastle trains his servants in the table manners, or the one in which Mrs. Hardcastle discovers the loss of the casket of jewels and Tony jests that he himself will bear witness to the fact and says that he has seen them stolen with his own eyes, or the garden-scene in which Mrs. Hardcastle mistakes her husband for a highwayman and prays to him on her knees to spare her son's life.

Irony is perhaps the greatest source of humour in the play. There are dramatic irony in the play with character talking and acting at cross-purposes and the audience enjoying the fun. Throughout the play, the audience knows the truth unknown to the actors.

The audience knows the mistakes of the night but the characters like Marlow and Mr Hardcastle do not know it and this contrast produces the fun. The audience knows the truth that Marlow is neither so impudent as Mr Hardcastle thinks nor so awkward as Miss Hardcastle thinks. Dramatic irony lies in the very mistake of Mr Hardcastle's house for an inn. Miss Hardcastle's disguise as a barmaid, and Tony's trick on his mother create dramatic irony which create fun.

In the play we also find the humour of character which arises from what characters are and what they are expected to be. Marlow, for example, comes to court and marry Miss Hardcastle, but he is so bashful that he does not look at her face in the first interview. But when she "She Stoops to Conquer" abounds with situations which send the audience roaring with laughter.

There are a number of such situations. For example, there is the scene in which Mr Hardcastle trains his servants in the table manners, or the one in which Mrs. Hardcastle discovers the loss of the casket of jewels and Tony jests that he himself will bear witness to the fact and says that he has seen them stolen with his own eyes, or the garden-scene in which Mrs. Hardcastle mistakes her husband for a highwayman and prays to him on her knees to spare her son's life.

Irony is perhaps the greatest source of humour in the play. There are dramatic irony in the play with character talking and acting at cross-purposes and the audience enjoying the fun. Throughout the play, the audience knows the truth unknown to the actors. The audience knows the mistakes of the night but the characters like Marlow and Mr Hardcastle do not know it and this contrast produces the fun.

The audience knows the truth that Marlow is neither so impudent as Mr Hardcastle thinks nor so awkward as Miss Hardcastle thinks. Dramatic irony lies in the very mistake of Mr Hardcastle's house for an inn. Miss Hardcastle's disguise as a barmaid, and Tony's trick on his mother create dramatic irony which create fun.

In the play we also find the humour of character which arises from what characters are and what they are expected to be. Marlow, for example, comes to court and marry Miss Hardcastle, but he is so bashful that he does not look at her face in the first interview. But when she appears before him in plain dress, he drags her hand and tries to kiss her.

Mrs Hardcastle pretends to be young and charming and tries to conceal her real age. She claims that she is just forty, while in reality, she is an old woman about fifty-seven years of age. Tony is an immortal humorous character as Shakespeare's Falstaff. He appears to be a fool but the humour arises from the fact that he outwits all even the sophisticated gentlemen of the town.

The dialogues of the play are interesting because of their wit and ready repartees. Almost all the characters of the play have a ready wit. While commenting on the elaborate supper Mr Hardcastle has made ready for them, Marlow wittily says, "The devil, sir, do you think we have brought down the whole Joiners' Company, or the corporation of Bedford, to eat up such a supper."

When Miss Hardcastle appears before Marlow in plain dress, he is charmed by her beauty. He wittily begs her for a taste of the nectar of her lips. But she cleverly says, "Nectar! nectar! That's a liquor there's no call for in these parts. French, I suppose. We keep no French wines here, Sir."

The conversation between Marlow and Hastings are marked by elegance and wit. They are polished and sparkling. When they mistake Mr Hardcastle for an innkeeper, they talk to him very insolently. When Marlow is about to meet Miss Hardcastle, Hastings speaks of proposing love as opening the campaign: "The first blow is half the battle. I intend opening the campaign with the white and gold."

Thus the humour and wit are the essential elements of the play. According to Minto "Goldsmith surpasses all our humorists in the combination of delicate wit and extravagant fun."

Comment on the theme of dual identities in She Stoops to Conquer.

Ans. She Stoops to Conquer has a variety of themes. The theme of dual identities is one of the most dominant one. In the play dual identities are seen in the characters of Marlow, Miss Hardcastle, Tony and Miss Neville.

Marlow is a man of dual nature. Miss Neville informs Miss Hardcastle that Marlow is a very queer sort of fellow. In the company of women coming from higher status of society, he is very modest. and reserved. But it is reported by his friends that Marlow is very free and impudent in the company of low class women of easy morals. Thus, he is very shy in the company of the women of status and very bold and forward in the company of the women of lower class.

The dual identity is also evident in Miss Hardcastle who had.to transform herself in order to get to Marlow. Marlow is so bashful and modest that in his first interview with Miss Hardcastle, he even does not look at her face, She decides to have him. She appears before him in plain dress. Marlow takes her for a barmaid. He looks at her face and describes her eyes as lively and mischievous.

He asks for a taste of the nectar of her lips i.e. to plant a kiss on her lips. But she pretends not to understand what nectar means. When he wants to know her age, she says that women and music always remain fresh and sweet-they can never be old. When he tries to kiss her, she prevents him and asks him to keep the distance. Thus, she wins his heart playing the role of a barmaid.

Marlow is in love with the barmaid but he does not know that the barmaid is Miss Hardcastle herself. He tells his father and Mr Hardcastle that he has only one meeting with Miss Hardcastle and the meeting was ormal, modest and uninteresting. But Hardcastle tells them that she has several meetings with Marlow and that he has declared his love for her. To convince them of the truth, she asks them to hide behind a screen.

Accordingly, Mr Hardcastle and Sir Charles Marlow are behind the screen, when Marlow comes to take leave of Miss Hardcastle. He expresses his pain in the separation from her. At one point Marlow kneels at her feet to prove his confident love to her. Just them Sir Charles Marlow and Mr. Hardcastle come forward behind the screen and taunts Marlow for his denial of love to Miss Hardcastle.

Here Marlow comes to know. the true identity of the girl to whom he is making love. This scene serves as a denouement because it unravels the knot of the plot, which leads to the union of Miss Hardcastle and Marlow.

The dual identity is also found in Tony and Miss Neville. Tony is the son of Mrs Hardcastle by her first husband. Miss Neville is an orphan who lives with her aunt, Mrs Hardcastle. Mrs Hardcastle wants his son to marry Miss Neville in order to retain her fortune in the family. But Tony does not like Miss Neville because his heart is fixed on a country girl, Bet Bouncer. Miss Neville, on the other hand, is in love with Hastings. But they pretend to make love to each other. with a view to deceiving Mrs Hardcastle,

Thus, the theme of dual identities permeates the play. It helps the two pairs of lover to be united in wedlock.


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